In 2009, Sir Jim Rose’s Report, ‘Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties’ gave the following description of dyslexia, which was adopted by the British Dyslexia Association Management Board.
Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling:
The route to identification often starts with a parent sensing that academic development isn’t progressing quite as expected. There can be a feeling that the young person is bright and good verbally, but that reading and written expression are not developing quite as expected. Sometimes, spelling can appear to be an area of challenge.
Later on, a young person might be reading fluently but not seem to absorb what they read. They might be slow to complete written work or struggle to follow instructions.
It is very common for other members of the family to have difficulties with literacy, with attention, with motor skills or perhaps social communication, even if these are undiagnosed.